Hygienic macro expansion is one of the crown jewels of Scheme, but to this day nobody understands just exactly what it is.Put that in your pipe!
Unhygienic macro expansion identifies programs with their representation as trees. But because of variable scope, programs in fact have additional graph structure, with edges between variable bindings and their references. Since these edges are not explicitly represented in S-expressions, maintaining their integrity during macro expansion becomes the responsibility of programmers. Put differently, the tree representation of a program has unenforced representation invariants that are the responsibility of programmers to maintain.A good explanation of why "code is more than data". (Though Pascal Costanza seems to have found a way to introduce hygiene in an unhygienic macro system.)
Though the motivations are clear enough, hygienic macro expansion has so far resisted a precise, formal specification. At the heart of the problem is identifying what is meant by “scope” in a language with extensible syntax. ...
The key insight of this dissertation is that by annotating all macro definitions with interfaces describing their grammar and binding structure, we can reason formally about the binding structure of Scheme programs, and without first macro-expanding. More technically, explicit annotations provide us with enough information to obtain a formal definition of α-equivalence of pre-expansion Scheme programs.These binding specifications make use of tree addresses, a syntax for describing subtrees of a cons tree, analogous to Common Lisp's CADR, CADDR, CADAR, etc functions. The corresponding tree addresses would be AD, ADD, and ADA.
Furthermore, the specifications make use of attribute grammars. These allow synthesized attributes (passed from children upwards to their parents) and inherited attributes (passed from parents downward to their children). For example, the specification of LAMDBA would be:
(lambda xs:formals e:expr)This means that the imports attribute (the bound variables) in E corresponds to the exports attribute (the introduced formals) of XS. (There are additional rules, which I'm not showing here.)
↪ e.imports = xs.exports :: ε
I've only read the first two chapters so far, but this work seems like a clear winner. Very readable and insightful. Congratulations, Dave!